Tuesday, August 25, 2020

US Industrial Revolution Essays - Rockefeller Family, Standard Oil

US Industrial Revolution The Standard Oil Company established by John D. Rockefeller and the U.S. Steel Organization established by Andrew Carnegie. The Standard Oil Company and U.S. Steel Organization were made effective in various manners because of the activities of their various proprietors. The organizations contrasted in their work relations, advertise control, and auxiliary association. In the steel business, Carnegie created a framework known as vertical coordination. This implies he cut out the center man. Carnegie purchased his own iron and coal mineshafts since utilizing free organizations cost excessively and were wasteful. By doing this he had the option to undersell his competetors on the grounds that they needed to pay the contenders they went through to get the crude materials. In contrast to Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller incorporated his oil business through and through, his particular advancement in development of American industry was level. This implied he tailed one item through the entirety of its stages. For instance, rockrfeller controlled the oil when it was penetrated, through the refining stage, and he kept up command over the refining process transforming it into fuel. Despite the fact that these two influential men utilized two various techniques for the executives their organizations were still effective (Conlin, 425-426). Big shots like Andrew Carnegie, the steel lord, and John D. Rockefeller, the oil noble, practiced their virtuoso in contriving approaches to circument rivalry. In spite of the fact that, Carnegie slanted to be extreme fisted in business, he was not a monopolist and hated monopolistic trusts. John D. Rockefeller came to command the oil business. With one upward step after another he sorted out the Standard Oil Company, which was the core of the extraordinary trust that was framed. Rockefeller indicated little kindness. He accepted crude brutality won in the wilderness universe of business, where just the fittest endure. He persued the strategy of ruin or rule. Rockefeller's oil imposing business model turned out an unrivaled item at a moderately modest cost. Rockefeller belived in savage business, Carnegie didn't, yet the two of them had the best organizations in their businesses. (The American Pageant, pages 515-518) Rockefeller rewarded his clients in a similar way that Andrew Carnegie rewarded his laborers: unfeeling and brutal. The Standard Oil Company urgently needed each conceivable organization to purchase their items. Standard Oil utilized savage strategies when Rockefeller threatenedto start his own chain of markets and put nearby dealers bankrupt on the off chance that they didn't accepting oil from Standard Oil Company. Carnegie managed his laborers with a similar virus absence of tact and thought. Carnegie would support an antagonistic rivalry between two of his laborers and he prodded them into exceeding one another. A portion of his representatives discovered working under Carnegie agonizing. These competitions turned out to be so imperative to the workers that somedidn't converse with each other for a considerable length of time (McCloskkey, page 145). Albeit both Carnegie and Rockefeller made extermely successsful organizations, the two of them utilized corrupt techniques in some part of their enterprise working to get to the top. The accomplishment of the Standard Oil Company and U.S. Steel organization was credited to the way that their proprietors ran them with incredible power. In this extremely competetive timespan, numerous new organizations were being framed and it took skilled specialists to excel what's more, keep the organizations running and make the fortunes that were made during this enough said.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Use Of Counselling Skills When Assessing Needs Of Carers Nursing Essay

Utilization Of Counseling Skills When Assessing Needs Of Carers Nursing Essay Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) strategies underscores the need to help carers (2000 Strategy for Carers in Wales). Anyway more as of late, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) stresses the need to offer help to individuals with dementia and their carers in wellbeing and social consideration in the NICE clinical rule 42 on dementia care (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2006). In light of English enactment the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) created the Carers procedure for Wales: Action Plan (2007) it featured that in Wales 70% of care in the network is given by unpaid carers. The archive sets out WAGs key way for carers; it conveys explicit activity focuses that will lead the route forward throughout the following scarcely any years that will help accomplish the destinations. As of late the Welsh Minister for Health and Social Services (WAG 2010) counseled on a draft Dementia Action Plan for Wales paper created by a Task Finish Grou p, which featured four need territories that would improve the lives of individuals with dementia and their families in Wales. Because of these discoveries WAG has assigned subsidizing of  £1.573m to help the advancement of Dementia activity designs in the years between 2010 2012. Sway has additionally made accessible a coincidental financing of  £400,000 in 2010/12 to broaden administrations gave by Older Peoples Community Mental Health Teams to grow new Young Onset Dementia Services across Wales (WAG 2010). These administrations would incorporate suitable help and appraisal of carers. Predominance The Care Standards Act (2000) gives guideline and national least measures. These guidelines depend on administration client needs. The reason for which is to give a base norm, underneath which no supplier may work. One such supplier is (Grown-up Social Services) (ASS), at present backings 100,000 grown-ups in Wales. The principle arrangement of ASS is to help and secure those individuals who might be more terrible off monetarily in their nonappearance, by offering network care administrations and to work in association with different suppliers (ASS no date). ASS offers types of assistance to numerous grown-up gatherings. With the end goal of this task one gathering that ASS bolsters is more established individuals with emotional well-being issues, for example, dementia and their carers. The Community Mental Health Nurse (CMHN) is a piece of the Community Mental Health Team that works in association with ASS. CMHNs give authority abilities in Caring to individuals with dementia and their carers. Dementia has been portrayed by numerous individuals just like a degenerative decrease in mental working that compares to having complex needs reliance and grimness ( NICE 2006, NICE-SCIE 2007). Having such complex needs the more established grown-up with dementia is evaluated. This evaluation procedure likewise includes offering an appraisal of requirements for the carer. There are emotional well-being Policy Guidance gave by (WAG 2003) that suggests utilizing an appraisal instrument called the Care Program Approach (CPA) the CPA procedure will be talked about later in the task as this. The Carer The job and needs of the carer is regularly neglected, in spite of government arrangements. The carer feels disillusioned at the absence of data of help that is accessible and isn't effectively gotten to. Alongside absence of boss help in having a break to take their minded ones to arrangements (Carmichael et al 2008). There is proof to recommend from a carers see that it is an enthusiastic rollercoaster of difficulties that stretch the carer to the edge of ordinary thinking see Appendix 1(HCWPC 2008). These difficulties can cover a wide range. This could incorporate and not be constrained to loss of individual space, security, and decisions due to not having the opportunity. This additionally impairs the carers capacity to think autonomously as an individual as they have almost no uninterrupted alone time. This can prompt managing the passionate impacts of confronting the absence of having a significant relationship, self esteem and loss of the capacity to know bliss. Further enthus iastic difficulties can be evoked as companions, family and the more extensive network pull back as frequently they can get on the carers sentiments of misery and more noteworthy or lesser burdensome indications. To maintain a strategic distance from individuals getting an impression the carer will frequently fake it to outcasts despite the fact that they are gradually genuinely biting the dust within, through absence of chuckling and loss of control of ones self (HCWPC 2008). Along these lines it is fundamental for the CMHN to use the aptitudes they have in perceiving the individual needs of the carer. CMHN have their job At present in England there are Admiral Nurses who are expert specialists in dementia and work in organization with family carers and individuals with dementia. In Wales the principal Admiral Nurses began working in one province as it were. After three years in April 2010 (A mysterious University Health Board) neglected to get subsidizing for the support of proceed (Dementia UK 2010). Presently the hole in Wales is being met by Community Mental Health Nurse Specialist Practitioners (CMHNSP) whose job is that of group pioneer. Driving master groups that, get these patients and carers with complex needs. Master Practitioner courses are accessible through assigned colleges in Wales. These courses adhere to Standards for Specialist Education and Practice as set by the Nursing and Midwifery Central Council (NMC 2001). Distinguishing the necessities of the patient with dementia and carer through the CPA draws on the expertise of the CMHNSP. These aptitudes will draw on powerful corresponde nce, tuning in, directing and intelligent practice abilities. (Casement 1985), a psychoanalyst, refered to in Johns (2004) Offers an increasingly good idea of reflection as the capacity to discourse with self while exchanging words with a customer. He considers this exchange with self the Internal Supervisor focusing on the manner in which oneself deciphers what the other is stating, and weighing up how best to react. During the appraisal procedure the CMHNSP will be considering both as an inside director, and attentive person. The CMHNSP should feel positive in utilizing these abilities, yet ought to likewise know that negative powers could likewise be in power. As utilizing the two abilities could impact the CMHNSP to miss what really was being said. Rowlinson (2010) cautions that while effectively tuning in, it is significant that a guide stops some other sort of interruption. This incorporates the common exchange that everybody has going through their head continually. Shaping d ecisions, with respect to what is being stated, is additionally a square to effectively tuning in, just like the desire to give data at, what might be, an unseemly respite in the discussion. The evaluation and any experience with the patient and carer ought to likewise lead the CMHNSP to draw on their insight into guiding hypothesis aptitudes, and psychological conduct treatment (CBT) mediations and as a casual partner, this structures some portion of the CMHNSPs regular intercessions with the two patients, and carers. CBT is a transient talking treatment that has an exceptionally pragmatic way to deal with critical thinking. It intends to change examples of reasoning or conduct that are behind both patient and carers challenges, thus change the manner in which they feel. Mind(2010). ( Mention CBT) Collins (2003) because of a poll, medical attendants reacted that CBT empowered them to offer customers unqualified positive respect. The relationship that created between the customer and attendant helped the medical attendant to recognize and react to the necessities of the customer in a substantially more empathic way. During any mediation with a patient with dementia and their carer would require cautious non critical administration. The CMHNSP would draw from their insight into guiding mediations that they had learnt and utilize these to offer the carer much required help, to empower them to push ahead and permit both patient and carer to settle on educated choices about their consideration needs through the CPA evaluation process. Alongside an evaluation of requirements of the carer as their own needs are frequently neglected or covered up by the carer. (Ref Required) During any discourse with the patient and carer as an Internal Supervisor, the CMHNSP would give careful consideration that cautious documentation of any discussion would be required utilizing patients own words where suitable. Where authority appraisals are completed notes would be taken during such mediations to catch mind boggling subtleties. (ref to KG something) Taking opportunity to consider and arrange for what should be written in the notes would likewise permit the CMHNSP to comprehend the circumstance through reflection while recording the mediation for the situation notes. Keeping great records frames a fundamental piece of nursing and birthing assistance practice, and incites the arrangement of sheltered and efficient consideration. It should shape a fundamental assignment not to be missed regardless of whether there are time imperatives NMC (2009). Urging the Carer to make their own notes will help them in considering the issues and choices that should be made. Some portion of the CPA appraisal includes both the patient and carer partaking recorded as a hard copy there own consideration plans. This procedure separates the issues everywhere into littler ventured targets which can set clear reachable objectives. By separating the things builds the odds of accomplishment and objective accomplishment (Kottler et al 2008). Patients records are similarly as significant if not more so than the specialists records. Patients acquire valuable data that they can utilize both during and after the advising Nelson-Jones (2002). Objectives fly into the discussion r egularly not being seen by the individual looking for counsel frequently requiring the assistant to bring up the objectives Tschudin(1995). In this way furnishing the patient and carer with authority information or helping them in realizing where to discover it might support the patient and carer to see their circumstance from an alternate perspective and subsequently give a premise to activity. (Elgan 1994

Monday, August 3, 2020

ENFJ Personality Characteristics & Cognitive Functions

ENFJ Personality Characteristics & Cognitive Functions Theories Personality Psychology Print ENFJ: The Giver (Extraverted, Intuitive, Feeling, Judging) An Overview of the ENFJ Personality Type By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on May 14, 2019 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Overview Intuitive-Thinking INTJ INTP ENTJ ENTP Intuitive-Feeling INFJ INFP ENFJ ENFP Sensing-Judging ISTJ ISFJ ESTJ ESFJ Sensing-Perceiving ISTP ISFP ESTP ESFP In This Article Table of Contents Expand Key ENFJ Characteristics Cognitive Functions Personal Relationships Career Paths Tips for Interacting With ENFJs View All ENFJ is one of the 16 different personality types identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.?? Some other types are known by the acronyms ESFJ, ENFP,  INFP, ISFJ, and INTP. People with ENFJ personality type are often described as warm, outgoing, loyal, and sensitive. Illustration by JR Bee, Verywell Of all the personality types, the ENFJ is often perceived as being the strongest people person. They are capable of forging friendships of all personality types, even with more introverted or reticent individuals. Because of their ability to sense what others feel and affect how people behave, they do have the ability to influence and even manipulate others. This is balanced by their strong value system and desire to help other people be the best that they can be. ENFJ is the opposite of the ISTP personality type. Psychologist David Keirsey suggests that approximately two to five percent of all people have an ENFJ personality. Key ENFJ Characteristics ENFJs are strong extraverts; then sincerely enjoy spending time with other people. They have great people skills and are often described as warm, affectionate and supportive. Not only are people with this personality type great at encouraging other people, they also derive personal satisfaction from helping others.ENFJs are often so interested in devoting their time to others that they can neglect their own needs. They also have a tendency to be too hard on themselves, blaming themselves for when things go wrong and not giving themselves enough credit when things go right. Because of this, it is important that people with this personality type regularly set aside some time to attend to their own needs.They are also good at bringing consensus among diverse people. For this reason, they can be outstanding leaders and bring an enthusiasm to a group that can be motivating and inspirational.One common myth about ENFJs is that they are always sociable. While they love people, they do need time alone in order to assimilate and organize their thoughts. Strengths Outgoing and warm-hearted Empathetic Wide social circle Encouraging Organized Weaknesses Approval-seeking Overly sensitive Indecisive Self-sacrificing Cognitive Functions Each MBTI personality type can be identified by a hierarchical stack of cognitive functions that represent how each person interacts with the world. These functions focus on how people take in information about the world and how they then use this information to make decisions. Dominant: Extraverted Feeling ENFJs express this cognitive function through their engaging social behavior and harmonious social relationships. They are in tune with other peoples feelings, often to the point that they ignore their own needs in order to please others. ENFJs place a stronger emphasis on personal, subject considerations rather than objective criteria when making decisions. How a decision will impact others is often a primary concern. Auxiliary: Introverted Intuition ENFJs like to think about the future rather than the present. They may often become so focused on the larger goal that they lose sight of the immediate details. As ENFJs take in information about the world, their introverted intuition processes this data in order to create impressions, ideas, and thoughts. This allows them to spot patterns and make sense of complex or abstract data. Tertiary: Extraverted Sensing In an ENFJs personality, extraverted sensing causes them to take in the present moment, gathering concrete details and sensory information from the environment. Because of this, they will often seek out novel or interesting experiences and sensations. People with this personality type tend to be very aware of their present environment. This can lead to a great appreciation of aesthetics and a desire to create a pleasing space. Inferior: Introverted Thinking ENFJs are organized and enjoy structure and careful planning. Sticking to a predictable schedule helps ENFJs feel in control of the world around them. Because this is an inferior function, ENFPs may not have a great deal of confidence in their own ability to be logical and organized. Developing this function can help people with this personality type feel more balanced and in control of their decision-making process. Neglecting this aspect of personality can lead to relying solely on personal values when making decisions and neglecting the need for logic. ENFJs You Might Know Abraham Maslow, psychologistPeyton Manning, football playerBarack Obama, U.S. presidentBono, musicianElizabeth Bennet, character in Pride and Prejudice Personal Relationships ENFJs value other people highly and are warm, nurturing, and supportive in personal relationships. At times they can become very wrapped up in other peoples problems. They are altruistic and interested in helping others, which can sometimes come off as a bit overbearing. Despite this, they are usually very well liked and people appreciate their genuine concern and care. As parents, ENFJs are nurturing and warm, although they can sometimes be accused of being so-called helicopter parents. They are directly involved in their childrens lives, although they can sometimes be quite strict and even rigid at times. ENFJs need to remember to give their children room to explore and express their individuality, particularly as children age into adolescence. ENFJs have an outgoing personality and enjoy spending time with other people. Being in social settings helps them feel energized. In friendships and other relationships, people typically describe ENFJs as supportive and fun to be around. They are particularly good at relating to others and are known to help bring out the best in the people with whom they spend their time. Career Paths ENFJs often do best in careers where they get to help other people and spend a great deal of time interacting with others.  Because of their strong communication and organizational skills, ENFJs can make great leaders and managers. They are good at organizing activities, helping each group member achieve their potential and resolving interpersonal conflicts. They strive to create harmony in all situations, and always seem to know what to do to ease tensions and minimize disagreements. Popular ENFJ Careers CounselorTeacherPsychologistSocial workerHuman resources managerSales representativeManager Tips for Interacting With ENFJs Friendships One of the best ways to be a good friend to an ENFJ is to accept the care and support that they naturally offer. People with this personality type enjoy helping their friends, and it is important to show that you accept and appreciate what they have to offer. However, it is also important that you offer your support in return. ENFJs are not always good at asking for help when they need it. In many cases, simply being willing to listen to whatever they have to share can be very helpful. Parenting Children of ENFJs might find it difficult to live up to their parents high exceptions. At times, the ENFJ parents hands-on approach to parenting can be stifling and make it difficult for kids to explore the world on their own terms. Parents of ENFJ children should recognize that their children are extremely empathetic, sometimes to the point that they may feel overwhelmed by the strong emotions that other people evoke. These children are giving and caring but may find it difficult to burden others with their own struggles. Parents should encourage their children to care for others, while still taking care of their own emotional well-being. Relationships Because ENFJs are so sensitive to the feelings of others, your happiness is critical to your partners happiness. Remember that your partner may even put their own needs last in order to ensure that your needs are met. Let your ENFJ partner know how much you appreciate all the support and care that they offer and be willing to provide the same support in return â€" even if he or she struggles to ask for help.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Ethical Issues That Affect The Field Of Organizational...

Ethics refers to the principles that influence how a person or a group of people behaves. It is what dictates what is right or wrong but in some cases what may be right to a person may be wrong to another person. The idea of what is right or wrong is influenced by factors of religion, the society, past experience and individual perceptions about different issues (Carroll Buchholtz, 2014). Ethics dictates what values are and the social responsibility that an individual or a group of people play towards the society. The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical issues that affect the field of organizational behavior. Organizational behavior refers to the study of how people interact with each other in organizational settings and this forms the culture of the organization (McShane Von, 2015). Naturally people are different; the values they uphold and what they consider to be right or wrong differs. Their interests also differ and getting them to unite on a similar background can be very hectic. For this reason, ethical issues have to be considered in an organization so that people treat each other fairly and are able to interact with each other. Among the major ethical issues that affect organizational behavior include health and safety of employees, legal and government compliance, transparency, fair working conditions and technology. The ethical issues that affect the organizational behavior of one company may differ from another but there are those issues thatShow MoreRelatedThe Ethics And Organizational Communications1448 Words   |  6 Pages The study of Ethics and organizational communications has been an ongoing subject. It has been introduced as a way to be a more effective communicator, especially pertaining to an organization. It is a practical way to improve morale between an employer to his employee as well as a client to an organization. Resolution of ethical behaviors and practices are essential to any organization. The following study of Ethics and organizational communications has been studied and explored by other scholarsRead MoreOrganizational Behavior Trends1619 Words   |  7 PagesOrganizational Behavior Trends Outline: 1. Definition of OB and related terminologies. 2. Role of decision making in OB environments. 3. Conflicts involved in decision making processes in organizations. 4. Rifts between managerial level staff and operations level workforce. 5. Stakeholders in decision making in a corporate hierarchy. 6. Self-inflicted ethical dilemmas and differences, causes for it. 7. Values and goals affecting causing ethical dilemmas in OB 8. Globalization and its strategic alliancesRead More Organizational Behavior Trends Essay1565 Words   |  7 PagesOrganizational Behavior Trends Outline: 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Definition of OB and related terminologies. 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Role of decision making in OB environments. 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Conflicts involved in decision making processes in organizations. 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Rifts between managerial level staff and operations level workforce. 5.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stakeholders in decision making in a corporate hierarchy. 6.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Self-inflicted ethical dilemmas and differences, causes for it. 7.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Values and goals affecting causing ethical dilemmas in OB Read MoreThe Impact Of Ethical Dimension On Job Satisfaction Of Employees1232 Words   |  5 PagesIMPACT OF ETHICAL DIMENSION ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES Chapter No. 1 Introduction 1.0 Background The need of organizational ethics is becoming more significant for job satisfaction in all businesses. These businesses have to face many ethical issues like social responsibilities, social expectations, fair competition, legal protections and rights. The consistency and maintenance of an organization’s culture enforces the management to take into account the culture and various factors like performanceRead MoreOrganizational Behavior Trends1159 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Organizational Behavior is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. Organizational Culture is the basic pattern of common assumptions, values, and beliefs leading the way employees within an organization think about and act on problems and opportunities. Organizational Trends are patterns of change over time in some variable of interest. In this paper we will evaluate two trends in organizational behavior. The influence of ethics on decision-makingRead MoreCase Study: Ethical Issues Confronting Jacob966 Words   |  4 Pagesnumber of ethical concerns contained within the case study. Due to the large number of ethical issues confronting Jacob, he may wish to make a decision as to whether he truly desires to work in such an unethical culture. The environment of a business can certainly influence the individual employee, either for good and positive aspects, or in a bad or negative manner. Organizational ethics are definitely in play in this particular case study. A 2010 study found that an organizational culture reflectsRead MoreEthical Issues Within The Field Of Human Resources1657 Words   |  7 Pagesfacing problems with ethical issues in the field of human resources. Among the biggest ethical concerns businesses faced are the quality of work life, diversity at the workplace, worth of an individual, impartiality of human resources managers, and fair remuneration of employees. These issues present challenges mainly due to attaining a balance between the interest of the organization and requirements of employees. Ranking them based on effect on productivity and organizational performance revealsRead MoreThe Dynamics of People and Organizations1655 Words   |  7 PagesChapter 1 The Dynamics of People and Organizations Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people – as individuals and as groups – act within organizations. Organizational Behavior is a scientific discipline in which a large number of research studies and conceptual developments are constantly adding to its knowledge base. Goals of Organizational Behavior (Most Sciences share four goals) * Describe (How people behave under a varietyRead MoreOrganizational Communication : An Organization1591 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The way in which individuals in an organization communicate with each other is what organizational communication is referred as in the simplest of terms. However, a little more precisely in terms of organizational communication as a field, it is defined as the consideration, study, and the censure of communication. Therefore, it would be safe to say organizational communication is not merely the transfer of a message from one party to another but it is also an element which shapes upRead MoreHow Do Global Regulations Influence Businesses Operating Internationally? What Are The Major Obstacles?1328 Words   |  6 Pagesof fair competitive environments are important to a robust economy. Having regulations in place and practiced by businesses keep them in check which allows more choice for the consumer, pricing remains more competitive, and they level the playing field. Societal principles, norms, and values through which laws are introduced and adopted are the foundation of responsibi lity to stakeholders. Social benefits such as having safe work environments, the promotion of equality, and preserving the environment

Monday, May 11, 2020

Essay Impact of Global Warming on Species - 2592 Words

Thousands of species have become extinct over the last four decades as a result of changes in land use and as a result of global warming. Whether or not the millions of species can adapt and evolve to climate changes is debatable. As this brief overview will report, the human species is not adapting well to the changes. It must be remembered that increases in the levels of carbon dioxide are certainly responsible for the risk many species face, but so is the way land is used, e.g., rain forest destruction. There is a feedback loop wherein plant life and the climate are interdependent. Each affects the other. When forests are cut down, temperatures in that area will rise. Rising temperatures cause other plant life requiring cooler†¦show more content†¦The results of these acts of nature have taken lives; a heat wave in France claimed 15,000 lives (King, 2004) and one in Chicago caused 500 heat related deaths (Journal of Environmental Health, 2001). Carbon dioxide levels are higher than at any time in our history (King, 2004). It is projected that more carbon dioxide will cause these levels to cause increased temperatures by 1.0 degrees to 4.5 degrees Celsius during the next century. Furthermore, climate changes have brought more diseases especially vector borne diseases, like malaria† (Journal of Environmental Health, 2001, p. 30). Different attempts have been made to stop global warming or to slow down its progress. For instance, the Kyoto Protocol was signed by numerous countries in 1997 (Retallack, 2000). This agreement called for countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 2012 (Retallack, 2000). Since that time, the levels identified in this Protocol would do very little in terms of stabilizing the concentration of these gases (Retallack, 2000). In 2001, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) adopted a 10-year Environmental Strategy (OECD Observer, 2004). In 2004, they acknowledged they are not on track w ith the strategy (OECD Observer, 2004). They recognize the needs but only about one-third of the ministers reported reducing greenhouse gas emissions (OECD Observer, 2004). Despite the evidence,Show MoreRelatedImpacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity in Northern Canada1501 Words   |  7 PagesTopic: impacts of climate change on biodiversity in Northern Canada Climate change, as a change in weather like global warming, has attracted the attention of the public. The issue of climate change has been becoming a global focus of attention for people around the world. Most scientists think that climate change is primarily caused by human activities. Temperature and precipitation shifts directly affect biota, and scientists think that as the climate continues to change, the biodiversity inRead MoreEssay on The Effects of Global Warming656 Words   |  3 PagesGlobal Warming is a condition caused by greenhouse gases and human activities. The increased concentration of greenhouse gases due to activities such as deforestation and fossil fuel burning is causing the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans to warm up. As a result of this, global warming has some serious effects in the shape of extreme weather, species extinctions, and rising sea levels. These effects can contribute to the changes that are taking place all over the world, most of which ar e dangerous enoughRead MoreFood Industry And Global Warming946 Words   |  4 PagesFood Industry and Global Warming Global Warming is a rising issue for all the creatures on the Earth. Scientists haven been discovering the reasons and solutions for the global environmental changes for decades. Also, because of the effort of the scientists and media, people got aware of the great impacts of green house effect. However, most people only know that global warming is caused by the industries, manufactures or transportations, and neglect another huge factor of the environment, theRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effect On The Marine Ecosystem Essay1541 Words   |  7 PagesThe fear of global warming has been looming over people, and baffling scientists for decades. Since it was recognised that climate change is becoming accelerated due to human resources, the knowledge around it has been slowly evolving. Fifty years ago, as will be discussed, thinking around the subject was quite different. Even now experts cannot come to a consensus as to what the result of climate change will be. It is observed, at present, that global warming has made a huge impact on the marineRead MoreEssay on Global Warming: Humans Are Destroying the Planet1327 Words   |  6 PagesEveryone knows that global warming is a serious environmental health problem with its effects reflecting on nature and all of mankind on Earth since the mid-twentieth century – emission of concentrated greenhouse gases, rise of sea levels, melting of polar ice caps, and increase in global surface air temperature. The rise in global surface air temperature causes frequent droughts in dry areas and accelerated ocean warming and hence the rapid increase in sea levels and melting of the polar ice capsRead MoreEssay about Causes and Effects of Global Warming on Our World1498 Words   |  6 PagesGlobal Warming is a universal concern that has gained worldwide attention. As members of Congress, we have heard and learned new and different facts about the process of Earth. Some causes and effects of global warming are easy to understand, with substantial evidence, yet there are still unanswered questions and reasoning as to why global warming is occurring. This essay is to outline the background of global warming and to display opposing viewpoints. Since there is not enough evidential researchRead MoreGlobal Warming Has A Effect On The Size Of The Vector Population912 Words   |  4 Pagesarthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies and blackflies.14 The largest health impact from global warming worldwide would occur from vector-borne infectious diseases because arthropod vectors are cold-blooded and thus, are very sensitive to climatic factors.4,14 Therefore, vectors and pathogens are predominantly affected by high temperature, as weather affects their survival and reproduction rates, habitat suitability, and abundance.7,14 Consequently, global warming has a direct impact onRead MoreThe Everglades And Global Warming1745 Words   |  7 PagesThe Everglades and Global warming Richard Hamilton BSC2010 Broward College The Everglades and Global warming Introduction The Everglades mainly found in the United States of America (USA) is a 2 million acre of wetland ecosystem that stretches from the Central of Florida near to Orlando to the Bay of Florida in the south. During rainy seasons, Lake Okeechobee experience upsurge in water volumes causing it to discharge the waters into the â€Å"river of grass† that characterize with shallowRead MoreEssay about We Can Stop Global Warming965 Words   |  4 PagesGlobal warming is the increasing temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. In the last few decades this increase has been relatively significant. Global warming is the largest problem that the world will face in the twentieth century. This is going to require international attention and the cooperation from everyone, including the government. The Earths atmosphere has already warmed by 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit since 1900. Scientists contend that anthropogenic additions of greenhouse gases, mainly CO2Read MoreClimate Plays an Important Environmental Influence on Ecosystems671 Words   |  3 Pagesnegative impacts under current levels of climate change. One of the biggest issues that we are facing nowadays is global warming. With the global warming and the rising of the temperature of sea water, it has great impact on the species in the ocean. More species is facing extinction and with the rising of temperature, it could force species in the ocean to migrate to higher latitudes where temperatures are lower and easier to survive. In this research, I would like to know if global warming would force

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Comparison Of Wastewater Treatment Methods Environmental Sciences Essay Free Essays

string(134) " On the other manus, curdling consequences in a larger mass of primary sludge that is frequently more hard to inspissate and dewater\." Water constitutes over 70 % of the Earths surface and is a really of import resource for all people and the environment. If H2O gets polluted it cant be the elixr of life any longer to aquatic and to the wild life that depend on it. Rivers and watercourses polluted with chemical contaminations account as one of the most important environmental jobs. We will write a custom essay sample on A Comparison Of Wastewater Treatment Methods Environmental Sciences Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Water pollution is fundamentally a human fallacy.This used H2O is called â€Å" effluent † . Turning population and rapid industrialization has increased the volume of effluent manifold finally deteriorating the fresh H2O resources and environing environment due to inappropriate management.It is 99.94 per centum H2O, with merely 0.06 per centum of the effluent being dissolved and suspended solid stuff. Infiltration/inflow: immaterial H2O that enters the cloaca system through indirect and direct agencies such as through leaking articulations, clefts, or porous walls.Inflow is storm H2O that enters the cloaca system from storm drain connexions, roof headings, foundation and cellar drains or through manhole screens ; Features: Fresh, aerophilic, domestic H2O has been said to hold the smell of kerosine or newly turned Earth. Aged, infected sewerage is well more violative to the olfactory nerves.The characteristic rotten-egg smell of H sulphide and the mercaptans is declarative of infected sewage.Fresh sewerage is typically gray in colour.septic sewerage is black.The category of chemical compounds found in effluent are illimitable and so they are better known by the name of the trial used to mensurate them which are BOD5 and COD test.Industrial procedures generate a broad assortment of effluent pollutants.The features and degrees of pollutants vary significantly from industry to industry. Waste-water quality is assessed based on physical, chemical, and biological features. Physical parametric quantities include coloring materials, smell, temperature, and turbidness. Insoluble contents such as solids, oil and lubricating oil, are to be considered under this category.. Solids may be farther subdivided into suspended and dissolved solids every bit good as organic ( volatile ) and inorganic ( fixed ) fractions. Chemical factors to be considered are: biochemical O demand ( BOD ) , chemical O demand ( COD ) , entire organic C ( TOC ) , and entire O demand ( TOD ) . Inorganic chemical parametric quantities include salt, hardness, pH, sourness and alkalinity, every bit good as concentrations of ionised metals such as Fe and manganese, and anionic entities such as chlorides, sulphates, sulphides, nitrates and phosphates. Bacteriological parametric quantities include coliforms, fecal coliforms, specific pathogens, and viruses. Both components and concentrations vary with clip a nd local conditions. VARYING FLOW Issue: Waste-water flow fluctuates with fluctuations in H2O use, which is affected by a battalion of factors including clime, community size, life criterions, dependableness and quality of H2O supply, H2O preservation demands or patterns, and the extent of metre services, in add-on to the grade of industrialization, cost of H2O and supply force per unit area. Wide fluctuations in effluent flow rates may therefore be expected to happen within a community Effluent does non flux into a municipal effluent intervention works at a changeless rate. The flow rate varies from hr to hr. In most metropoliss, the form of day-to-day activities sets the form of sewerage flow and strength. Above-average sewerage flows and strength occur in mid-morning.The invariably altering sum and strength of effluent to be treated makes efficient procedure operation difficult.Also, many intervention units must be designed for the maximal flow conditions encountered which really consequences in their being oversized for mean conditions.Flow equalisation is non a intervention procedure in itself, but a technique that can be used to better the effectivity of both secondary and advanced effluent intervention processes.The intent of flow equalisation is to stifle the fluctuations so that the effluent can be treated at a about changeless flow rate.Flow equalisation can significantly better the public presentation of an bing works and increase its utile capacity.In ne w workss, flow equalisation can cut down the size and cost of the intervention units. Wastewater intervention options may be classified into groups of procedures harmonizing to the map they perform and their complexness: The basic methods of handling municipal effluent autumn into the undermentioned phases, which is shown in the signifier of block flow: The procedure flow diagram of a basic effluent intervention procedure is as follows: Conventional WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES: General footings used to depict different grades of intervention in order of increasing intervention degree are preliminary, primary, secondary and third and/or advanced effluent intervention. Preliminary intervention: Preliminary intervention prepares waste-water influent for farther intervention by cut downing or extinguishing non-favourable waste-water features that might otherwise impede operation or overly increase care of downstream procedures and equipment. These features include big solids and shreds, scratchy grit, smells, and, in certain instances, intolerably high extremum hydraulic or organic burdens. Preliminary intervention processes consist of physical unit operations, viz. testing and comminution for the remotion of dust and shreds, grit remotion for the riddance of coarse suspended affair, and floatation for the remotion of oil and lubricating oil. Other preliminary intervention operations include flow equalization, septage handling, and odour control methods. Primary Treatment: Primary intervention is designed to take organic and inorganic solids by the physical procedures of deposit and flotation. About 30 – 40 % of the pollutants are removed from the waste Waterss. Primary intervention acts as a precursor for secondary intervention. Secondary intervention: The intent of secondary intervention is the remotion of soluble and colloidal organics and suspended solids that have escaped the primary intervention. This is typically done through biological procedures, viz. intervention by activated sludge, fixed-film reactors, or laguna systems and deposit. Chemical intervention utilizes a coagulator such as Fe or aluminium.Then solid organic affair and P are precipitated into larger pieces which are separated as sludge. Suspended solids removal through chemical intervention involves a series of three unit operations: rapid commixture, flocculation and settling..A once-through chemical intervention system is shown below the tabular array. Advantage: greater remotion efficiency, the feasibleness of utilizing higher overflow rates, and more consistent public presentation. On the other manus, curdling consequences in a larger mass of primary sludge that is frequently more hard to inspissate and dewater. You read "A Comparison Of Wastewater Treatment Methods Environmental Sciences Essay" in category "Essay examples" It besides entails higher operational costs and demands greater attending on the portion of the operator. Adsorption WITH ACTIVATED CARBON Adsorption is the procedure of roll uping soluble substances within a solution on a suited interface. In waste-water intervention, surface assimilation with activated carbon-a solid interface-usually follows normal biological intervention, and is aimed at taking a part of the staying dissolved organic matter.Particulate affair nowadays in the H2O may besides be removed.. The two most common types of activated C are farinaceous activated C ( GAC ) , which has a diameter greater than 0.1 millimeter, and powdered activated C ( PAC ) , which has a diameter of less than 200 mesh. A schematic of an activated C contactor is shown below the tabular array. Advantage: Exploitation powdered activated C in concurrence with traditional biological intervention provides first-class outflowing bio-assay consequences, provides for toxicity control within the bioreactor, and proA ­motes higher nitrification efficiency than that of a conventional activated-sludge system. CWAO Oxidation is a procedure widely used for effluent intervention by which the pollutants are removed or converted into more biodegradable substances. Catalytic moisture air oxidization ( CWAO ) is a liquid stage reaction between organic stuff in H2O and O. CWAO is an attractive intervention for waste watercourses, which are excessively dilute to incinerate and excessively concentrated for biological intervention. It can be defined as the oxidization of organic and inorganic substances in an aqueous solution or suspension by agencies of O or air at elevated temperatures and force per unit areas. It is besides called flameless burning Typical conditions for CWAO scope from 125 to 300a- ¦C and at force per unit areas from 0.5 to 20 MPa. Residence times may alter from 15 to 120 min, and the chemical O demand ( COD ) remotion may typically be about 75-90 % . DECHLORINATION Dechlorination is the remotion of free and entire combined Cl residue from chlorinated effluent wastewater before its reuse or discharge to having Waterss. Chlorine compounds react with many organic compounds in the wastewater to bring forth unsought toxic compounds that cause long-run inauspicious impacts on the H2O environment and potentially toxic effects on aquatic microorganisms. Beginning: Adapted from Liu and Liptak, Wastewater Treatment ACTIVATED CARBON CONTACTOR: Beginning: Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater Engineering, 3rd edition. Comparison OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN WASTEWATER: Factor BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL CHEMICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL EFFLUENT QUALITY Biological P remotion was observed to make a lower limit of 0.4mg/l in the wastewater Chemical P remotion was observed to make whatever outflowing quality demand as more and more chemicals are dosed SLUDGE PRODUCTION ( The production of sludge is considered as a really of import factor in the pick of a effluent intervention method presents ) Sludge production is less compared to chemical method. Chemical P remotion produces more sludge, approximately 25 % more sludge than by biological agencies. NEEDED PLANT VOLUME As the volume of the anaerobiotic zone of the Bio -P procedure is reduced, there are alterations in the outflowing quality and the efficiency of P remotion is reduced The decrease of the volume of the anaerobiotic zone has no effects on the chemical P remotion Consumption OF ENERGY It was possible to cut down the capacity of the aeration device down to 1000kg O2/hr and still hold good intervention consequences in footings of COD and nitrogen remotion in the Bio-P process.Beyond this bound ( less than 100kg O2/hr ) COD and the Nitrogen in the wastewater are excessively high. Same sum of COD and Nitrogen in the wastewater is observed at 500kgO2/hr.So chemical method is more immune to decrease in aeration capacity than the Bio-P procedure by atleast 500kgO2/hr aeration capacity. ECONOMIC COST OF TREATMENT ) Annual cost for sludge disposal is saved by Bio-P compared to chemical method. The cost of buying chemicals is high and no nest eggs with respect to sludge disposal compared to Bio-P remotion. The economic cost of intervention has been evaluated based on a summing up of the single costs associated with sludge production, cost of chemicals, energy cost and costs associated to volume nest eggs. The purpose of an economic cost is non to reflect the exact fiscal cost but an estimation that could be used as a guideline for the building of a new works or for comparing of the two procedures. Discussion: Chemical VS BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT: Biological procedure removes solid organic affair and dissolved organic affair. The chemical procedure removes solid organic affair and phosphorus.Chemical precipitation cleans the H2O really quickly, say in less than 15mins after the induction of the procedure, we have clean H2O, whereas with biological intervention it will take 3 hour to accomplish the same.Biological procedure stopping points relatively long clip and is dependent on the effectivity of the microorganisms.Chemical and Biological interventions work in different ways and accomplish different results.We have to find the major causes of O lack in Waterss and choose the intervention in conformity with local environmental requirements.Purification in itself demands resources.Biological intervention requires a long abode clip and energy is consumed when air is blown into the sewerage water.Consequently the Biological works is large and more complex.The micro-organisms have to be adapted to the pollution which sensitises th e whole system.Chemical purification requires add-on of coagulators which is done in a little pool and at lower energy consumption.The entire energy used for chemical intervention is merely 15 % of that required for biological intervention, even if the energy used for production and distribution of coagulators is included.In footings of the entire ecological emphasis, the chemical procedure is favoured.Life rhythm appraisals show the biological procedure to be a larger consumer of resources and therefore it is more negative interms of its full environmental impact.If there is no demand to take dissolved organic affair a biological procedure could make greater ecological harm than chemical procedure due to the entire energy ingestion and the natural stuffs used when building the works. The environment makes demands on the purification procedure and if advanced purification is necessary both biological and chemical methods must be used..In Norway, the bing chemical works built wholly within bedrock was extended with the N remotion system due to the increased food load.With the alone combination of chemical and biological procedures this works occupies less than half the volume of the conventional biological procedure. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Effective effluent aggregation and intervention are of great importance from the point of view of both environmental and public wellness. Any effluent intervention works needs important investing and Operation Maintenance and control, and hence any determination to implement such a installation should be carefully considered. It is non a good thought to reason that any intervention method is better than the other.Each one has its ain advantages and disadvantages.The pick of which method is to be used will depend on the society, the discharge demands and the costs they are ready to incur.As a concluding decision, the winning construct these yearss should non be based on which procedure should be used in isolation to the other, but instead utilizing the advantages of both processes together to obtain best consequences, while at the same clip understating their disadvantages. Extensive research activity in this field has led to important betterment and variegation in the procedures and methods used for waste-water intervention and sludge direction. Public wellness jeopardies are frequently associated with waste-water reuse, and accordingly it is indispensable to circulate cognition and information about the danger of natural waste-water reuse and issue safe reuse guidelines. 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Thursday, April 30, 2020

Uncle Toms Cabin Essays (1892 words) - Literature, Film,

Uncle Tom's Cabin Uncle Toms Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe UNCLE TOM -Uncle Tom manages the Shelby plantation. Strong, intelligent, capable, good, and kind, he is the most heroic figure in the novel that bears his name. Tom's most important characteristic is his Christian faith. God has given Tom an extraordinary ability. He can forgive the evil done to him. His self-sacrificing love for others has been called motherly. It has also been called truly Christian. AUNT CHLOE- Aunt Chloe, Uncle Tom's wife, is fat, warm, and jolly. She is a good housekeeper and a superb cook, and justly proud of her skill. She loves Tom, and urges him to escape to Canada rather than to go South with Haley. After Tom is sold, she convinces the Shelbys to hire her out to a baker in Louisville and to use her wages to buy Tom's freedom. She is heartbroken to learn of his death. - MOSE, PETE, AND POLLY - Mose, Pete, and Polly, the children of Uncle Tom and Aunt Chloe, are playful and rambunctious. Polly is Tom's special favorite, and she loves to bury her tiny hands in his hair. ELIZA HARRIS - Eliza Harris is raised by her mistress, Mrs. Shelby, to be pious and good. Described as light-skinned and pretty, Eliza dearly loves her husband, George Harris, and their little boy, Harry. When she learns that Harry is about to be sold, Eliza carries him in her arms to the Ohio River, which she crosses on cakes of ice. Although generally a modest and retiring young woman, Eliza becomes extraordinarily brave because of her love for her son. GEORGE HARRIS- George Harris, portrayed as a light-skinned and intelligent slave, belongs to a man named Harris. He is married to Eliza, who lives on the Shelby plantation, and they have a son, Harry. HARRY AND LITTLE ELIZA - Harry and little Eliza are the children of George and Eliza Harris. Harry, born a slave on the Shelby Plantation, is bright and cute, and sings and dances for Mr. Shelby and Haley. He is so beautiful that he is disguised as a girl in order to escape into Canada. Once there, he does very well in school. Little Eliza is born free in Canada. - SAM AND ANDY- Sam and Andy, slaves on the Shelby plantation, provide comic relief through their mispronunciations and deliberate mishaps. Andy, who likes to makes speeches, is meant to satirize politicians. But Sam and Andy make an important contribution to the novel's plot- their clowning allows Eliza to escape across the Ohio River. MR. SHELBY - Mr. Shelby, the owner of a Kentucky plantation, generally treats his slaves well, but he decides to sell two of them, Uncle Tom and little Harry, to pay off a debt. Although he regrets the sale, Shelby feels he has no other choice. MRS. SHELBY - Mrs. Shelby, a kind, religious woman, tries to raise the family's slaves with Christian values. She attempts to convince her husband not to sell Tom and Harry, and she helps Eliza escape. Warm-hearted Mrs. Shelby treats her slaves like people, crying with Aunt Chloe when Uncle Tom leaves and consoling her when they learn he is dead. - GEORGE SHELBY- George Shelby, the son of Mr. and Mrs. Shelby, is thirteen years old when the novel begins, and eighteen when it ends. He likes to spend time with Uncle Tom and Aunt Chloe, basking in their kindness and attention. He teaches Uncle Tom to read and write, and reads the Bible at the slaves' religious meeting. On Uncle Tom's grave, he swears to do whatever he can to fight against slavery, and he begins by freeing the slaves on his own plantation. George is one of the few characters who changes during the course of Uncle Tom's Cabin, as he develops from a good-hearted but somewhat self-centered boy into a noble and effective man. HALEY-Haley sets the plot of Uncle Tom's Cabin in motion by insisting that Mr. Shelby sell him Tom and little Harry. Haley curses, smokes, drinks, and dresses badly. He claims to be humane because he is not completely cruel to the slaves he buys. But you can see that he's a nasty person. He doesn't believe slaves have feelings, so he doesn't think twice about separating a mother and child- like Eliza and little Harry, or about the woman who